Food Security

    A troubling decline in the caribou herds of the Arctic

    E. Struzik. Environment 360 (2010). Across the Far North, populations of caribou, an indispensable source of food and clothing for indigenous people, are in steep decline. Scientists point to rising temperatures and a resource-development boom as the prime culprits.

    A warming Earth could mean stronger toxins

    R.A. Lovett, Nature News, November 9, 2010. Global warming may be making pesticide residues, heavy metals, and household chemicals more dangerous to fish, wildlife, and, ultimately, humans, scientists warn.

    A world built on ice and whales

    R. Black, BBC News, July 13, 2011. BBC environmental correspondent Richard Black reports on whaling traditions and conditions in Barrow, Alaska,

    Adapting to the impacts of climate change on food security among Inuit in the Western Canadian Arctic

    S.D. Wesche, H.M. Chan. EcoHealth (2010) 7(3):361-373. This study examined critical impacts of climate change on Inuit diet and nutritional health in four Inuit communities in the Inuvialuit Settlement Region, Western Arctic, Canada. The vulnerability of each community to changing food security is differentially influenced by a range of factors, including current harvesting trends, levels of reliance on individual species, opportunities for access to other traditional food species, and exposure to climate change hazards.

    Alaska Natives assessing the health of their environment

    D. Garza. International Journal of Circumpolar Health (2001) 60(4):479-486. The changes in Alaska's ecosystems caused by pollution, contaminants and global climate change are negatively impacting Alaska Natives and rural residents who rely on natural resources for food, culture and community identity.

    Alaskan meltdown: On the frontlines of climate change

    B. Sherwonit. National Parks (2004) 78(3):24-29. Spread across 32 ecoregions, Alaska's 54 million acres of national parklands are being affected by global warming in many ways, some of them obvious, others subtle. As wild landscapes change, plant communities, wildlife populations, and humans dependent on park resources must adapt or lose their niche in the ecosystem.

    Anatomy of a closing window: Vulnerability to changing seasonality in Interior Alaska

    S.M. McNeeley, M.D. Shulski. Global Environmental Change (2011) 21(2):464-473. The well-being of rural Native communities is still highly dependent on access and ability to harvest wild foods such as salmon and moose, among many others. Over the past decade, communities in the Koyukuk–Middle Yukon (KMY) region of Interior Alaska report an inability to satisfy their needs for harvesting moose before the hunting season closes, citing warmer falls, changing precipitation and water levels, and the regulatory framework as primary causes.

    Answers from the ice edge: The consequences of climate change on life in the Bering and Chukchi seas

    Report prepared by the Arctic Network in collaboration with Greenpeace Alaska, June 1998. Climate change is a grave threat to northern ecosystems and thus to the subsistence way of life that is the heart of Yup'ik and Inupiat cultures. This report is about changes Alaska Native peoples of the northern Bering and Chukchi seas observe in their surroundings. (PDF, 1.27 MB)

    Arctic fever

    B. Barcott, OnEarth, February 23, 2011. In the far north of Alaska, the fragile food web that supports polar bears and humans alike may be starting to unravel.

    Arctic Net - Food Security, Ice, Climate and Community Health: Climate change impacts on traditional food security in Canadian Inuit communities

    Phase II of a study of the effects of climate change on the traditional food supplies of Canadian Inuits and the impacts on the health of the population. (PDF, 176 KB)

    Arctic sentinels

    H. Hoag. PLoS Biology (2008) 6(10):doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0060259. Global mercury emissions have stabilized over the past decade, yet levels in Arctic marine mammals have risen by an order of magnitude. Some researchers think that climate change may be behind the recent rise.

    Assessing the impacts of climate change on food security in the Canadian Arctic

    Report prepared by GRID-Arendal for Indian and Northern Affairs Canada, March 2009. Food security, like climate change, is a multi-faceted issue. Bringing the two together to determine how climate change may impact food security is complex. (PDF, 924.1 KB)

    Biodiversity: Frozen futures

    M. Hopkin, Nature News, March 26, 2008. Conserving crop biodiversity is an urgent undertaking. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) predicts that 25-30% of plant species will be extinct or endangered in the next century. The 'Doomsday vault' buried in the Arctic ice will provide a backup for the world's seeds, but more needs to be done to safeguard food diversity.

    Climate change 'remobilizes' long-buried pollutants as Arctic ice melts

    L. Morello, New York Times, July 25, 2011. Warming in the Arctic is causing the release of toxic chemicals long trapped in the region's snow, ice, ocean, and soil, according to a new study.

    Climate change and contaminants: New challenges for Alaska

    Lecture #17 in U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service's Climate Change Lecture Series, presented March 31, 2011, by Philip Johnson, Alaska Region Environmental Contaminants Coordinator, U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service.  (PDF, 3.8 MB)

    Climate change and environmental impacts on maternal and newborn health with focus on Arctic populations

    C. Rylander et al. Global Health Action (2011) 4:DOI: 10.3402/gha.v4i0.8452. Air pollution and food security are crucial issues for the pregnant population in a changing climate, especially indoor climate and food security in Arctic areas. (PDF, 6.64 MB)

    Climate change and food insecurity among females in an Inuit community

    Poster and abstract (2010) by M. Beaumier, M-P Lardeau, and J. Ford of McGill University.

    Climate change and health: A Native American perspective

    B. Weinhold. Environmental Health Perspectives (2010) 118(2):A64-A65. There is ample evidence that the raw drive for survival—the ultimate environmental health perspective—is a common thread that often compels people to change their behavior. That is the case today for some Native Americans who are feeling the effects of dislocation and food shortages they attribute to climate change. (965 KB)

    Climate change and the arctic diet

    E. Engelhaupt. Environmental Health Perspectives (2009) 117(7):A292. Researchers in Canada now report the first evidence that changes in the timing of the annual sea ice breakup have contributed to a dietary shift for polar bears from western Hudson Bay in the Canadian sub-Arctic. This shift may be accelerating the bears' bioaccumulation of some classes of persistent contaminants, and people who consume these animals as part of a traditional subsistence diet could face greater exposure to contaminants that are passed up the food chain.

    Climate change effects on traditional food cellars in Barrow, Alaska

    Center for Climate and Health Bulletin No. 4, 2010. This paper reports on a special health concern identified during surveys performed in November of 2009 and January 2010: the thawing of traditional, underground food storage cellars. Thawing permafrost is reducing the quality and quantity of food resources for some families, and resulting in cellars that have the potential to collapse and cause injury. (PDF 510.12 KB)

    Climate change effects on traditional Inupiat food cellars

    Center for Climate and Health Bulletin No. 1, 2009. Thawing of traditional food storage cellars due to warming soil temperature is reducing the quality and quantity of food available to residents of Point Hope. Climate change is a likely cause, and adaptive strategies are necessary to restore food security for Point Hope and other communities that depend on traditional storage cellars. (PDF, 2.41 MB)

    Conceptualizing food security for Aboriginal people in Canada

    E.M. Power, PhD. Canadian Journal of Public Health (2008) 99(2):95-97. Food insecurity is an urgent public health issue for Aboriginal people in Canada because of high rates of poverty; the effects of global climate change and environmental pollution on traditional food systems; and high rates of diet-related diseases. (PDF, 87 KB)

    Economic strategies, community, and food networks in Ulukhaktok, Northwest Territories, Canada

    P. Collings. Arctic (2011) 64(2):207-219. This paper examines the social networks of country food sharing in Ulukhaktok, Northwest Territories, Canada, in light of our current understanding of the relationship between climate change and Arctic peoples. (PDF, 502 KB)

    Effects of climate change and UV radiation on fisheries for Arctic freshwater and anadromous species

    J.D. Reist et al. Ambio (2006) 35(7):402-410. Fisheries for arctic freshwater and diadromous fish species contribute significantly to northern economies. Climate change, and to a lesser extent increased ultraviolet radiation, effects in freshwaters will have profound effects on fisheries from three perspectives: quantity of fish available, quality of fish available, and success of the fishers.

    Environmental change and local foodways in the Faroe Islands, a North Atlantic artisanal whaling society

    R. Fielding. Proceedings of the Fifth Northern Research Forum (2008). In the short term, the direct effects of global warming upon artisanal whaling in the Faroe Islands may be negligible. However, other environmental changes now underway, some of which share causal elements with global warming, show signs of having immediate and possibly terminal effects on this traditional cultural practice. These same environmental changes are likely to have similar effects on other artisanal and aboriginal whaling activities throughout the circumpolar North. (PDF, 347.63 KB)

    Evaluating disease trends in marine ecosystems

    PLoS Biology (2004) 2(4):doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0020119. With recent studies suggesting that disease rates throughout the food chain have increased over the past 30 years—and are expected to increase even more, thanks to global climate change—prospects for protecting marine ecosystems depend on understanding the causes and nature of these disease outbreaks.

    Facing the limit of resilience: Perceptions of climate change among reindeer herding Sami in Sweden

    M. Furberg et al. Global Health Action (2011):4:DOI: 10.3402/gha.v4i0.8417. Swedish reindeer-herding Sami perceive climate change as yet another stressor in their daily struggle. They have experienced severe and more rapidly shifting, unstable weather with associated changes in vegetation and alterations in the freeze-thaw cycle, all of which affect reindeer herding. (PDF, 2.34 MB)

    Feeding the family during times of stress: Experience and determinants of food insecurity in an Inuit community

    J.D. Ford, M. Beaumier. Geographical Journal (2010) 177(1):44-61. This paper uses a mixed methods approach to characterize the experience of food insecurity among Inuit community members in Igloolik, Nunavut, and examine the conditions and processes that constrain access, availability, and quality of food.

    Food and water security in a changing arctic climate

    D.M. White et al. Environmental Research Letters (2007) 2(4):1-4. Lakes, rivers, and wetlands on the arctic landscape are normally not connected with groundwater in the same way that they are in temperate regions.

    Food insecurity among Inuit women exacerbated by socioeconomic stresses and climate change

    M.C. Beaumier, J.D. Ford. Canadian Journal of Public Health (2010) 101(3):196-201. Inuit women's food insecurity in Igloolik is the outcome of multiple determinants operating at different spatial-temporal scales. Climate change and external socioeconomic stresses are exacerbating difficulties in obtaining sufficient food. (PDF, 1.05 MB)

    Food insecurity among Inuit women in Igloolik, Nunavut: The role of climate change and multiple stressors

    M. Beaumier et al. Poster from the State of the Arctic 2010 conference. Food systems are negatively affected by economic, social, and cultural transformations and by climate change. Food insecurity can have serious implications for women's physical and mental health and social well-being, resulting in increased susceptibility to infection and chronic health afflictions.

    Food security and marine capture fisheries: Characteristics, trends, drivers and future perspectives

    S.M. Garcia, A.A. Rosenberg. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B (2010) 365(1554):2869-2880. Looking towards 2050, the question is how fisheries governance, and the national and international policy and legal frameworks within which it is nested, will ensure a sustainable harvest, maintain biodiversity and ecosystem functions, and adapt to climate change.

    Food security in Igloolik, Nunavut: An exploratory study

    J.D. Ford, L. Berrang-Ford. Polar Record (2009) 45(03):225-236. This paper reports on an exploratory analysis examining the prevalence of food (in)security in the Inuit community of Igloolik, Nunavut, identifying high-risk groups, and characterizing conditions facilitating and constraining food security.

    Food security of northern Indigenous peoples in a time of uncertainty

    C.D.J. Paci. Proceedings of the Third Northern Research Forum (2004). This special position paper for the Northern Research Forum raises issues related to the security of traditional/country food--that is, the continued and predictable availability and access to food derived from northern environments through Indigenous cultural practices. (PDF, 184.6 KB)

    Food, culture, and human health in Alaska: An integrative health approach to food security

    P.A. Loring, S.C. Gerlach. Environmental Science & Policy (2009) 12(4):466-478. Multiple climatic and socioeconomic drivers have come in recent years to interfere with the ability of Alaska's 'bush' communities to achieve food security with locally available food resources.

    Foodborne diseases and nutrition

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2010. The U.S. Climate Change Science Program (CCSP) reported a likely increase in the spread of several foodborne pathogens due to climate change, depending on the pathogens' survival, persistence, habitat range, and transmission in a changing environment. (Archived version of webpage)

    General effects of climate change on Arctic fishes and fish populations

    J.D. Reist et al. Ambio (2006) 35(7):370-380. Projected shifts in climate forcing variables such as temperature and precipitation are of great relevance to arctic freshwater ecosystems and biota. These will result in many direct and indirect effects upon the ecosystems and fish present therein.

    Global climate change and potential effects on Pacific salmonids in freshwater ecosystems of southeast Alaska

    M.D. Bryant. Climatic Change (2009) 95:169-193. Rapid changes in climatic conditions may not extirpate anadromous salmonids in the region, but they will impose greater stress on many stocks that are adapted to present climatic conditions. Survival of sustainable populations will depend on the existing genetic diversity within and among stocks, conservative harvest management, and habitat conservation. (PDF, 623.35 KB)

    Global declines of caribou and reindeer

    L.S. Vors, M.S. Boyce. Global Change Biology (2009) 15:2626-2633. Caribou and reindeer herds are declining across their circumpolar range, coincident with increasing arctic temperatures and precipitation, and anthropogenic landscape change.

    Global warming impacts on lake trout in Arctic lakes

    M.E. McDonald et al. Limnology and Oceanography (1996) 41(5):1102-1108. If recent changes in Arctic Alaska's Toolik Lake foreshadow a long-term trend, the authors suggest that young-of-year (YOY) lake trout will not survive their first winter. Such changes, coupled with other current anthropogenic impacts in the Arctic, may disrupt lake trout control of the trophic structure in Arctic lakes. (PDF, 1.1 MB)

    Global warming: Effects on sea-food security

    D. Pauly, W.W.L. Cheung. Sea Around Us Newsletter (2009) 55:1-5. This article discusses steps the authors used to produce a number of papers on the impact of global warming on marine biodiversity and fisheries and to lay a foundation for future contributions. (PDF, 208 KB)

    Herbivore populations will go down as temperatures go up

    Science Daily, October 4, 2011. As climate change causes temperatures to rise, the number of herbivores will decrease, affecting the human food supply, according to new research from the University of Toronto.

    How is global climate change affecting Alaska's marine ecosystems and resources?

    Slide presentation by the Alaska Marine Conservation Council, 2008. Alaska's fisheries, which are commercially important (providing half of the US domestic catch), and traditional subsistence ways of life will be changing in complex and sometimes uncertain ways as the climate changes. (PDF 4.24 MB, archived webpage, archived webpage)

    How landscape dynamics link individual- to population-level movement patterns: A multispecies comparison of ungulate relocation data

    T. Mueller et al. Global Ecology and Biogeography (2011) DOI: 10.1111/j.1466-8238.2010.00638.x. The aim of this study was to demonstrate how the interrelations of individual movements form large-scale population-level movement patterns and how these patterns are associated with the underlying landscape dynamics by comparing ungulate movements across species. Study locations were Arctic tundra in Alaska and Canada, temperate forests in Massachusetts, Patagonian Steppes in Argentina, and Eastern Steppes in Mongolia.

    Hunting, herding, fishing, and gathering: Indigenous peoples and renewable resource use in the Arctic

    Chapter 12 (pages 649-690) of ACIA Scientific Report, Cambridge University Press, 2005. Climatic variability and weather affect the abundance and availability of animals and thus the abilities and opportunities to harvest and process animals for food, clothing, and other purposes. Arctic communities experience forces that threaten to restrict harvesting activities and sever these relationships. (PDF, 666.3 KB)

    Icing events trigger range displacement in a high-arctic ungulate

    A. Stien et al. Ecology (2010)91(3):915-920. Svalbard reindeer (Rangifer tarandus plathyrynchus) have small home ranges and may therefore be vulnerable to local "locked pasture" events (ice layers limit access to plant forage) due to ground-ice formation. When pastures are "locked," Svalbard reindeer are faced with the decision of staying and live off a diminishing fat store, or trying to escape beyond the unknown spatial borders of the ice.

    Impacts of climate change on the seasonal distribution of migratory caribou

    S. Sharma et al. Global Change Biology (2009) 15(10):2549-2562. Arctic ecosystems are especially vulnerable to global climate change as temperature and precipitation regimes are altered. An ecologically and socially highly important northern terrestrial species that may be impacted by climate change is the caribou, Rangifer tarandus.

    Importance of traditional foods for the food security of two First Nations communities in the Yukon, Canada

    R.C. Schuster et al. International Journal of Circumpolar Health (2011) 70(3):286-300. This study seeks to evaluate food consumption patterns in the context of food security in the Yukon First Nations communities of Teslin and Old Crow. The quantity of traditional foods consumed in 2007-2008 is described and the frequency compared to data from 1991-1992. The study explores aspects of food security including access to, and availability of, traditional foods.

    Indicators of ocean health and human health: Developing a research and monitoring framework

    A. Knap et al. Environmental Health Perspectives (2002) 110(9):839-845. The authors review the current state of indicators to link changes in marine organisms with eventual effects to human health, identify research opportunities in the use of indicators of ocean and human health, and discuss how to establish collaborations between national and international governmental and private sector groups.

    Influences of large-scale climatic variability on reindeer population dynamics: Implications for reindeer husbandry in Norway

    R.B. Weladji, Ø. Holand. The authors discuss predicted patterns of global climatic change in Norway and assess potential consequences for reindeer husbandry. They argue that, although it is clearly shown that local and global climate affect reindeer directly (e.g., increased energetic costs of moving through deep snow and in accessing forage through snow) and indirectly (e.g., effect on forage plant biomass and quality, level of insect harassment and associated parasitism), it is difficult to predict a general pattern of how future climate change will influence this species. (PDF, 292.2 KB)

    Interactions between climate change and contaminants

    D. Schiedek. Marine Pollution Bulletin (2007) 54(12):1845-1856. This paper is intended to increase awareness among scientists, coastal zone managers and decision makers that climate change will affect contaminant exposure and toxic effects and that both forms of stress will impact aquatic ecosystems and biota. (PDF, 398 KB)

    Inuit vulnerability and adaptive capacity to climate change in Ulukhaktok, Northwest Territories, Canada

    T. Pearce et al. Polar Record (2010) 46(02):157-177. Climate change is already being experienced in the Arctic with implications for ecosystems and the communities that depend on them. This paper argues that an assessment of community vulnerability to climate change requires knowledge of past experience with climate conditions, responses to climatic variations, future climate change projections, and non-climate factors that influence people's susceptibility and adaptive capacity.

    Local knowledge, subsistence harvests, and social-ecological complexity in James Bay

    C. Peloquin, F. Berkes. Human Ecology (2009) 37(5):533-545. This paper examines how indigenous Cree hunters in James Bay, subarctic Canada, understand and deal with ecological complexity and dynamics, and how their understanding of uncertainty and variability shape subsistence activities.

    Local observations of climate change and impacts on traditional food security in two northern Aboriginal communities

    M. Guyot et al. International Journal of Circumpolar Health (2006) 65(5):403-415. The primary objective of this study was to record participant observations of changes in the local environment, harvesting situations, and traditional food species and to explore what impact these may have on traditional food. (PDF, 541 KB)

    Mapping land cover change in a reindeer herding area of the Russian Arctic using Landsat TM and ETM+ imagery and indigenous knowledge

    W.G. Rees et al. Remote Sensing of Environment (2003) 85(4):441-452. Traditionally, the tundra and the northern fringes of the boreal forest of northern Europe have been occupied by indigenous peoples whose main economic activity is reindeer herding. Groups of herders accompany their animals as they follow the annual changes in vegetation. As well as climate change, the ecology has been substantially affected by social changes that have had a marked effect on the relationship between reindeer, herder, and pasture.

    Marie-Pierre Lardeau: Vulnerability of Inuit communities in a changing Arctic

    SciencePoles interview, July 29, 2010. Marie-Pierre Lardeau of McGill University discusses food security issues Inuit in many parts of Canada are facing, as well as some of the projects she and her colleagues are working on to document the current situation.

    Marine mercury breakdown

    J.D. Blum. Nature Geoscience (2011) 4(3):139-140. The neurotoxin methylmercury accumulates in marine biota and their predators. An analysis of seabird egg shells suggests that sea-ice cover reduces the breakdown of this highly toxic compound in sea water.

    Melting Arctic ice releasing banned toxins, warn scientists

    D. Carrington, guardian.co.uk, July 24, 2011. The warming of the Arctic is releasing a new wave of banned toxic chemicals that had been trapped in the ice and cold water, scientists have discovered.

    Melting tundra creating vast river of waste into Arctic Ocean

    ScienceDaily, January 12, 2010. The increase in temperature in the Arctic has already caused the sea-ice there to melt. According to research conducted by the University of Gothenburg, if the Arctic tundra also melts, vast amounts of organic material will be carried by the rivers straight into the Arctic Ocean, resulting in additional emissions of carbon dioxide.

    Mercury converted to its most toxic form in ocean waters

    Science Daily, April 27, 2011. Conversion of inorganic mercury to monomethylmercury accounts for approximately 50 per cent of this neurotoxin present in polar marine waters and could account for a significant amount of the mercury found in Arctic marine organisms.

    Mercury, food webs, and marine mammals: Implications of diet and climate change for human health

    S. Booth, D. Zeller. Environmental Health Perspectives (2005) 113(5):521-526. Under present conditions and climate change scenarios, methyl mercury has increased in the ecosystem, translating into increased human exposure over time. High and harmful levels of methyl mercury in the diet of Faroe Islanders are driven by whale meat consumption, and the increasing impact of climate change is likely to exacerbate this situation.

    Nisga'a women's healthy foods in the alpine permafrost and subalpine wetland

    N. Mackin, session abstract from the 34th annual meeting of the Society for Ethnobiology, May 4, 2011. Northern Indigenous peoples worry that nutritious foods are becoming less available in their communities during these times of accelerated climate, landscape, and social change. Elders express worry about the rapidly melting glaciers and the loss of knowledge about, and access to, traditional foods that were an important part of remaining healthy.

    Observations of environmental changes and potential dietary impacts in two communities in Nunavut, Canada

    T.L. Nancarrow, H.M. Chan. Rural and Remote Health (2010) 10:1370. The objective of this study was to report on observed climate changes and how they affect the country food harvest in two communities in the Canadian Arctic. The nutritional implications of these changes are discussed and also how the communities need to plan for adaptations. (PDF, 556.9 KB)

    On the potential for climate change impacts on marine anthropogenic radioactivity in the Arctic regions

    M. Karcher et al. Marine Pollution Bulletin (2010) 60(8):1151-1159. Radioactive contaminants and the processes that govern their transport and fate may be particularly susceptible to the effects of a changing Arctic climate. This paper explores the potential changes in the physical system of the Arctic climate system as they are deducible from present day knowledge and model projections.

    Perception of contaminants, participation in hunting and fishing activities, and potential impacts of climate change

    C. Furgal, L. Rochette. Gouvernement du Québec (2007). Hunting, fishing, and collection of resources from the land and sea are of central importance to the health of Inuit in Nunavik. Confidence in these resources and Inuit access to them have been threatened by reports of environmental contaminants in wildlife, social and economic trends, and, more recently, reports of climate change and variability and their influences on wildlife resource accessibility. (PDF, 617.73 KB)

    Persistent organic pollutants in large concentrations in Arctic areas: Fires spread environmental toxins over the Arctic

    ScienceDaily, June 1, 2010. Forest fires and straw and stubble burning in North America and Eastern Europe are leading to record-high concentrations of the environmental toxin PCB over Svalbard. As a result of climate change, airborne pollution is thus becoming an increasing problem in the Arctic.

    Reindeer management during the colonization of Sami lands: A long-term perspective of vulnerability and adaptation strategies

    I. Brännlund, P. Axelsson. Global Environmental Change (2011). Reindeer husbandry's strong connection to the land, together with the ongoing climate-change debate, has generated growing interest in its socio-ecological resilience and vulnerability. Here, using historical sources, the authors analyze the vulnerability of reindeer husbandry (and the Sami societies that depended on it) in Sweden during the 19th century, demonstrating that, although reindeer management was a much more diverse enterprise at that time than it is now, the major adaptation strategy and constraining forces were similar to those of today.

    Research planning in the face of change: The human role in reindeer/caribou systems

    G. Kofinas et al. Polar Research (2000) 19(1):3-21. In February 1999, eighty scientists, reindeer/caribou users, and resource managers gathered in Rovaniemi, Finland, for an interdisciplinary workshop to develop a circumpolar research plan that addressed the sustainability of human/reindeer/caribou systems.

    Resonance strategies of Sámi reindeer herders in northernmost Finland during climatically extreme years

    T. Vuojala-Magga et al. Arctic (2011) 64(2):227-241. This study focuses on the resonance strategies of Sámi2007. "Resonance" is an instinctive and indwelling reaction of a herder to a specific change (in contrast to coping, which is a more general response). The study is based on interviews with herders, field experiences, reindeer population statistics, and weather data. (PDF, 1.37 MB)

    Revolatilization of persistent organic pollutants in the Arctic induced by climate change

    J. Ma et al. Nature Climate Change (2011) 1:255-260. Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are organic compounds produced by human activities that are resistant to environmental degradation. The concentrations of many POPs have decreased in Arctic air over the past few decades owing to restrictions on their production and use. As the climate warms, however, POPs deposited in sinks such as water and ice are expected to revolatilize into the atmosphere.

    Satellite snow maps help reindeer herders adapt to a changing Arctic

    ESA News, April 1, 2009. Arctic reindeer herders are facing the challenges of adapting to climate change as a warmer Arctic climate makes it harder for herds to find food and navigate. To help them adapt, the ESA-backed Polar View initiative is providing the herders with satellite-based snow maps.

    Sea ice and migration of the Dolphin and Union caribou herd in the Canadian Arctic: An uncertain future

    K.G. Poole et al. Arctic (2010) 63(4):414-428. Caribou of the Dolphin and Union herd migrate across the sea ice between Victoria Island and the adjacent Canadian Arctic mainland twice each year, southward in fall-early winter and northward in late winter-spring. As a result of warmer temperatures, sea ice between Victoria Island and the mainland now forms 8-10 days later than it did in 1982, raising questions about the impact of delayed ice formation on the ecology of the herd. (PDF, 2.22 MB)

    Social indicators for observing Arctic change

    J. Kruse et al. Polar Geography (2011) 34(1-2):1-143. This special issue of Polar Geography contains articles on each of the four arenas of human activity likely to involve climate-human interactions: (1) subsistence hunting; (2) tourism; (3) resource development and marine transportation; and (4) commercial fishing. Articles include: Arctic Observing Network Social Indicators Project: Overview • Developing an Arctic subsistence observation system • Observing trends and assessing data for Arctic mining • Social indicators for Arctic tourism: Observing trends and assessing data • Arctic observing network social indicators and northern commercial fisheries • Linking pan-Arctic human and physical data • Next steps toward an Arctic human dimensions observing system

    The conditions of sustainable food security: An integrated conceptual framework

    G. Duhaime, A. Godmaire. Pimatisiwin: A Journal of Aboriginal and Indigenous Community Health (2003) 1(2):87-127. This is an abridged version of the first chapter of Sustainable Food Security in the Arctic: State of Knowledge, Gérard Duhaime, ed., University of Alberta, CCI Press, 2002. (PDF, 1.07 MB)

    The disappearing world of the last of the Arctic hunters

    The Observer, guardian.co.uk, October 3, 2010. In the first of a series of dispatches, Stephen Pax Leonard reports on the unique culture of the Inughuit as the sea ice that has supported their ancient way of life melts beneath them.

    The melting ice cellar

    P.L. Cochran, A.L. Geiler. American Journal of Public Health (2002) 92(9):1404-1409. As far back as the 1970s, Alaska Native communities reported changes we now know to be associated with global warming, such as changing weather patterns, thinning ice, diseased and deformed wildlife, and changes in the look and taste of such subsistence foods as fish and meat.

    The potential impact of climate on human exposure to contaminants in the Arctic

    L.D. Kraemer. International Journal of Circumpolar Health (2005) 64(5):498-508. Global contaminant pathways include the atmosphere, ocean currents, and river outflow, all of which are affected by climate.

    The prevalence of <em>Toxoplasma gondii</em> in polar bears and their marine mammal prey: Evidence for a marine transmission pathway?

    S.K. Jensen et al. Polar Biology (2009) 33(5):599-606. Little is known about the prevalence of the parasite Toxoplasma gondii in the arctic marine food chain of Svalbard, Norway. In this study, plasma samples were analyzed for T. gondii antibodies using a direct agglutination test. A high recent prevalence in polar bears, ringed seals, and bearded seals could be caused by an increase in the number or survivorship of oocysts being transported via the North Atlantic Current to Svalbard from southern latitudes.

    Travel routes, harvesting and climate change in Ulukhaktok, Canada

    T.D. Pearce et al. Proceedings of the Fourth Northern Research Forum (2006). This paper presents research that integrates natural and social science data with the knowledge from community members to document the implications of climate change for travel routes used by community members in Ulukhaktok to access seasonal harvesting grounds, and how policy decisions can enhance capacity to adapt in the future. It outlines steps for engaging Arctic communities in climate change research and describes an approach to assessing vulnerability. (PDF, 244.7 KB)

    Travelling and hunting in a changing Arctic: Assessing Inuit vulnerability to sea ice change in Igloolik, Nunavut

    G.J. Laidler et al. Climatic Change (2009) 94:363-397 The observations of community members and instrumental records indicate changes in sea ice around the Inuit community of Igloolik, in the Canadian territory of Nunavut. (PDF, 849.3 KB)

    Unravelling the mercury mystery: How does a warming climate boost toxic metals in Arctic foods

    CBC News, May 14, 2010. A network of scientists ranging from biologists to atmospheric scientists to glaciologists is working hard to track the path of mercury as it makes its way from industrial areas across the northern hemisphere into the Arctic food web.

    Unusual weather causing concerns for leaders

    Wawatay News, April 29, 2010. Kashechewan's hunters are not bringing home enough geese to stock up for the coming summer months.

    Vulnerability of Fraser River sockeye salmon to climate change: A life cycle perspective using expert judgments

    T. McDaniels. Journal of Environmental Management (2010) 91(12):2771-2780. Fraser River sockeye salmon have been the basis for a major commercial fishery shared by Canada and the United States, and an important cultural foundation for many aboriginal groups. This paper characterizes the vulnerability of Fraser River sockeye salmon to future climate change.

    Ways to help and ways to hinder: Governance for effective adaptation to an uncertain climate

    P.A. Loring et al. Arctic (2011) 64(1):73-88. This paper compares two case studies in Alaska, one on commercial fishers of the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands region and the other on moose hunters of Interior Alaska, to identify how governance arrangements and management strategies enhance or limit people's ability to respond effectively to changing climatic and environmental conditions.

    What price the caribou?

    C. Tesar et al. Northern Perspectives (2007) 31(1). The theme of this issue of Northern Perspectives is the impact of declining caribou herds on the well-being of the aboriginal residents of northern Canada. (PDF, 1.61 MB)

    When noise becomes the signal: Chemical contamination of aquatic ecosystems under a changing climate

    F. Wang. Marine Pollution Bulletin (2010) 60(10):1633-1635. Evidence is now emerging that climate change alters storage, transformation, transport pathways, eco-dynamics, and bio-uptake of contaminants. Here, the authors propose a new paradigm that, during a rapidly changing climate, emission control of some contaminants may be followed by long delays, on the order of decades or longer, before ensuing reduction is seen in food-web contaminant levels.

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